Encapsulation in Java

Level : Intermediate
Mentor: Shailendra Chauhan
Duration : 00:02:00

What is an encapsulation in Java?

Encapsulation is a method of combining code and data into a single unit. It prevents outer classes from accessing and altering a class's methods. This also helps in data hiding. This makes the code clearer and easier to read.

Encapsulation Advantages

  • Data Hiding and Encapsulation: Provides data security by concealing implementation specifics.
  • Flexibility: Setter/getter techniques allow for customized variable access.
  • Reusability: Encourages code flexibility to various requirements.
  • Testing Ease: Makes unit testing simpler.
  • Programmer Freedom: Allows for system detail implementation while maintaining a consistent external interface.

Encapsulation Disadvantages

  • More complexity may result from it, particularly if improperly used.
  • It may make it more difficult to get how the system functions.
  • This may limit the implementation's versatility.

Why Java Needs Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is essential in Java for a variety of reasons. They are listed below:

  • Control: Encapsulation provides full control over class data members and methods.
  • Getter & Setter: Standard IDEs make it easier to use getter and setter methods, increasing coding productivity.
  • Security: Encapsulation limits external access to data members and methods, which improves data security.
  • Flexibility: Allows modifications to be made to one part of the code without affecting other sections.

Access Modifiers in Java

In Java, access modifiers regulate code permissions, regulating visibility and accessibility for users and program members while also providing security and authentication within loops and throughout the program.

Different types of access modifiers in Java

There are 4 types of access modifiers in Java:

  1. Default Access Modifier
  2. Private Access Modifier
  3. Protected Access Modifier
  4. Public Access Modifier

Java algorithm to use an access modifier

  • Class Definition
  • Instance Variables
  • Access Modifiers
  • Private Access Modifiers
  • Protected Access Modifier
  • Public Access Modifier
  • Accessor and Mutator Methods

Java's getter and setter

In Java, Getter & Setter methods are used to protect data and improve code security. Getter and Setter functions make it easier for programmers to set and get values for certain data types.

Getter Method

The getter returns the value (accessors), which can be of any data type such as int, String, double, or float. The getter begins with the term "get" followed by the variable name for the sake of simplicity in programming.

Setter Method

Setters set or update the value (mutators). It determines the value of any variable used in a class's programs. and begins with the term "set", followed by the variable name. 

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