Data Modeling in MongoDB

Level : Advanced
Mentor: Shailendra Chauhan
Duration : 00:04:00

What is Data Modelling in MongoDB?

MongoDB Data modeling is the process of converting unstructured data from a real-world event into a logical data model in a database. MongoDB is flexible and supports dynamic schemas, so you don't need to design a schema ahead. When designing data models, consider application requirements, database performance, and data retrieval patterns. 

Designs for MongoDB Data Models

There are two approaches for designing data models in MongoDB:

  1. Embedded Data Model
  2. Reference Data Model

Embedded Data Model

Embedding related data in a single document, also known as denormalized models or de-normalized data models, entails nesting all connected documents into the same document. These nested documents, also known as sub-documents, make data retrieval and storage more efficient in MongoDB.

Reference Data Model

Reference Models are also known as Normalise Models. Normalized models divide relevant data across multiple documents, expressing relationships through object references. This strategy minimizes data duplication, simplifies many-to-many links, and is useful for modeling big hierarchical data sets with cross-collection linkages.

Steps in Data Modeling for MongoDB

The steps for data modeling in MongoDB are as follows:

  • Identify the application's requirements
  • Design the document schema
  • Normalise or denormalize the data
  • Improve the document structure
  • Validate the Data Model

Identify the application's requirements

Before creating the data model, it is critical to determine the application's requirements and comprehend how the data will be used. This includes identifying the data entities, their relationships, and the queries that will be used with the data.

Design the document schema

Using the application's requirements, create the document schema that will be utilized to store the data. The schema should reflect the relationships between the data items and be optimized for the queries that will be run on it.

Normalise or denormalize the data

Depending on the application's specifications, the data may need to be normalized or denormalized. Normalization is the process of breaking down data entities into smaller, more manageable components to decrease redundancy and improve data integrity. Denormalization is the process of grouping related data elements to increase query speed.

Improve the document structure

Once the document schema has been created, it is critical to optimize the document structure for speed. This includes selecting the appropriate data formats, reducing the number of nested pages, and avoiding huge arrays.

Validate the Data Model

Before deploying the data model, it is essential to validate it against sample data and run queries to confirm that it functions as expected.

Basic Data Modelling Concepts

When working with data modeling in MongoDB, it is important to understand some fundamental concepts:

  • Documents
  • Collections
  • Fields
  • Embedded Documents
  • Data Types
  • Schema Design
  • Normalization and Denormalization


A document is a collection of key-value pairs, with each key denoting a field name and the value representing any data type. In MongoDB, documents can be nested, which means that a field may contain another document or an array of documents.


Collections are groups of documents that share similar fields and are organized together. Collections are similar to tables in a standard SQL database.


Fields are key-value pairs in a document that represent a specific attribute or piece of data. Each document can have a unique set of fields based on the data it represents.

Embedded Documents

Embedded documents are those that are nested within another document. Complex data structures can now be represented in a single document using embedded documents.

Data Types

MongoDB accepts a variety of data types, including strings, integers, decimals, booleans, arrays, and dates. Each field in a document may have a different data type.

Schema Design

Schema design entails defining the structure of a document and organizing it in a way that is appropriate for the application's requirements. When creating a schema, it is critical to examine how the data will be queried and the types of indexes required to optimize speed.

Normalization and Denormalization

Normalization is the act of dividing data into smaller, more manageable chunks, whereas denormalization is the process of integrating similar material into a single document. Normalization and denormalization can be used to improve query performance and decrease data redundancy.

Advantages of MongoDB Data Modelling

  • Enhances application performance with better database strategy, design, and implementation.
  • Allows for quicker application development by making object mapping easier.
  • Improves data learning, standards, and validation.
  • Enables companies to evaluate long-term fixes and model data while addressing not just ongoing projects but also requirements for future applications, such as upkeep.

Considerations for Creating Data Model Design in MongoDB

Some significant factors to consider while developing a data model for a MongoDB database are:

  • Create the database based on user preferences and popular applications.
  • Make different collections and include unique papers in each.
  • If documents will be used together regularly, group them into a collection.
  • Join while writing, not while reading.
  • Use complicated aggregation in the database.
  • Duplicate data (to a point), as disc space is less expensive than computing time.
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