Introduction to MongoDB

Level : Beginner
Mentor: Shailendra Chauhan
Duration : 00:05:00

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a database that is structured around documents. MongoDB is a robust, scalable, & much more data-flexible database that gives high performance when dealing with big amounts of data and can also be converted into a NoSQL database. MongoDB stores its data in BSON format.

Why MongoDB?

  • MongoDB stores data as objects, specifically in JSON and BSON format.
  • Object-oriented languages such as C#, Python, PHP, and Java are widely used in modern programming.
  • To match their coding techniques, programmers need a database that can efficiently store data as objects.
  • MongoDB makes it easy to query and manipulate data objects, minimizing the time required for database operations.
  • Embedded documents & arrays in MongoDB reduce the need for joins, which speeds up data retrieval and manipulation.

What MongoDB doesn’t have?​

MongoDB lacks when compared to traditional relational databases:

  •  DDL​
  •  Joins ​
  •  Transactions​
  •  Procedures​
  •  Triggers​

DDL (Data Definition Language)

Unlike relational databases, MongoDB does not provide explicit DDL commands such as CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, or DROP TABLE. MongoDB's schema is flexible and dynamic, allowing documents to have different structures inside the same collection without having to predefine a schema.


MongoDB does not allow JOIN operations, which are commonly used in relational databases to integrate data from several tables for normalization. To improve efficiency, MongoDB recommends embedding related data within documents or denormalizing data.


MongoDB did not enable multi-document transactions across multiple collections until recently (version 4.0). Previously, transactions were confined to activities on a single document. Transactions are now supported in MongoDB, however, they are not as advanced or complete as those in traditional relational databases.


MongoDB does not allow stored procedures, unlike typical relational databases. via MongoDB, complicated logic is often handled via application code rather than the database itself.


MongoDB does not allow triggers, which are database objects that execute automatically in response to specific events, such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE actions on a table. In MongoDB, analogous functionality is often done at the application level rather than within the database.

Where can we use MongoDB?

In the situations listed below, MongoDB is favored over RDBMS:

  • Big Data: If you have a large amount of data to store in tables, choose MongoDB over RDBMS databases. MongoDB provides built-in support for partitioning and sharding your database.
  • Unstable Schema: In RDBMS, adding a new column is difficult, however, MongoDB has no schema. Adding a new field does not affect existing papers and is simple to implement.
  • Distributed Data: As numerous copies of data are saved on different servers, data recovery is quick and secure even in the event of a hardware failure.

Who Use MongoDB?

MongoDB is widely utilized in the IT business, with a Siftery survey revealing that over 4000 companies have adopted it as their database solution. Famous users are:

  • Cisco
  • Ebay
  • SAP
  • Expedia
  • Eventbrite
  • Forbes
  • Bosch
  • IBM
  • Citrix
  • Twitter
  • T-Mobile
  • Zendesk

Languages support MongoDB

MongoDB supports various languages, including:

  • C++
  • C
  • C#
  • Java
  • Node.Js
  • Perl
  • PHP
  • Python
  • Ruby

Features of MongoDB

  • Uses dynamic schemas to handle JSON data formats seamlessly.
  • Allows for thorough data retrieval by performing searches across all document fields.
  • Secondary indexes make it easier to query data in a variety of ways.
  • Uses aggregation pipelines to process and analyze complex data.
  • Master-Slave replication provides fault tolerance and data redundancy.
  • Automates load balancing to improve resource utilization and performance.
  • Supports auto-sharding for convenient horizontal scaling of databases.
  • Uses JavaScript objects rather than traditional methods, increasing flexibility and usability.
  • Provides unique collection types such as Time-To-Live (TTL) for automatic data expiration, resulting in effective data management.

Advantages of MongoDB

  • APIs (drivers) for several languages are supported, including C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Perl, and Java Scala.
  • Caching is supported for speed and to improve query performance.
  • Allows for replication and failover for high availability, ensuring ongoing operation even in the event of hardware failure or network difficulties.
  • It provides auto-sharding for easy scalability, allowing the database to handle increasing data volumes easily.
  • Indexes provide great performance, allowing for speedier data retrieval and query execution.
  • Aggregation is supported by Map/Reduce, making complicated data analysis and processing jobs more manageable.
  • It handles enormous amounts of data efficiently, making it ideal for large-scale applications and big-data processing.
  • Supports cross-platform deployment, allowing for smooth integration across different operating systems and environments.
  • Provides great performance, with quick response times and effective resource utilization.
  • Easy scalability is provided, enabling the database to expand in response to rising demands without sacrificing efficiency.
  • Reduces the need for advanced joins to get data, making query execution easier and more efficient.
  • Supports both vertical and horizontal scaling, giving you the freedom to scale resources according to your application's needs.
  • Available in any cloud-based environment, like as Azure or AWS, providing flexibility and ease of deployment in cloud environments.
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