Top 50 HTML Interview Questions and Answers

Top 50 HTML Interview Questions and Answers

02 May 2024
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HTML Interview Questions and Answers: An Overview

HTML is the standard language that is used to create a layout or basic structure for web pages. It contains a series of HTML elements that tell how the content will be displayed on a web page.

In this HTML tutorial, we will dive into HTML Interview Questions and Answers. Here we have divided them into HTML Interview Questions for Freshers and HTML Interview Questions for Experienced. Learn HTML from scratch through HTML Certification Training right now.

HTML Interview Questions & Answers for Beginners

1. What is HTML?

HTML standsfor HyperText Markup Language. HTML uses the standard markup language for designing the layout of web pages. It specifies the layout or appearance of the web pages by telling the browser how the content needs to be displayed on the Internet.

2. What is !DOCTYPE?

A doctype, also known as document-type is an instruction that lets the web browser know which version or standard of the HTML or any other markup language is used to write the current page. In HTML5, the DOCTYPE is case-insensitive and its syntax is:

<!DOCTYPE html>

3. What is the current version of HTML?

The current version of HTML is the fifth edition which is HTML 5.

4. What are the different markup languages available?

The different markup languages available are:
  1. HTML-HyperText Markup Language
  2. KML- Key whole Markup Language
  3. SGML-Standard Generalized Markup Language
  4. MathML-Mathematical Markup Language
  5. XML- eXtensible Markup Language
  6. XHTML- eXtensible HyperText Markup Language

5. What are HTML tags?

HTML tags consist of elements and attributes of an HTML document. These tags are generally, but not at all times, used in pairs, one at the beginning of the content, known as the opening tag, and one at the end of it, known as the closing tag. The HTML tags start with '<' and close with '>' symbol.

6. What are attributes in HTML?

In HTML, the attributes give some extra information about an element. They are used inside the opening tag of any element and have 2 parameters, a name and its value.

7. What are the main components of an HTML document?

An HTML document consists of elements that are represented by tags, content, attributes, and comments.

8. Explain the difference between HTML elements and HTML tags.

HTML ElementsHTML Tags
HTML elements define the structure and content of a web page.HTML tags markup the beginning and end of an HTML element.
They consist of opening tags, content, attributes, and comments.They consist of opening and closing angle brackets with the tag name inside.

9. What is the difference between <div> and <span> elements?

In HTML, <div> is a block-level element that is used for grouping and structuring the content.
<div>
    <h2>Section Title</h2>
    <p>This is a paragraph within a div element.</p>
</div>
While <span> is an inline element that is used for styling a part of the content.
<p>This is a <span style="color: blue;">blue</span> text.</p>

10. What is the purpose of HTML in web development?

The main purpose of HTML is to provide a framework that helps to organize content on the web using elements, tags, attributes, and their respective values. It allows browsers to render them properly so that users can view and interact with the page.

11. How do you create a hyperlink in HTML?

We can create hyperlinks with the help of anchor tags represented as '<a>' with the 'href' attribute that specifies the destination URL. Its syntax is:
<a href="https://www.example.com">Link Text</a>

12. Explain the difference between <strong> and <em> tags.

A <strong> tag is used to define a text with strong importance, while <em> is used to define emphasized text. The <strong> tag will display the text in bold and the <em> tag will display it in italics.

13. What is the structure of an HTML tag?

The basic structure of an HTML tag will consist of an opening tag, the content, and a closing tag.
<tagname>content</tagname>

14. How are comments added in HTML?

Comments can be added in HTML by using the comment tag represented by '<!-- comment -->'. The comments in HTML can be categorized into three types:
  • Single-line comment
  • Multi-line comment
  • Using <comment> tag

15. What is the use of alt attribute in images?

The alt attribute in the <img> tag is used to give an alternate text for an image. It will be displayed as an alternate text if the image fails to be displayed. It also gives extra information about the image we have used it with.
<img alt="text">

16. Describe various HTML tags used to display a table.

  • <table>-It defines the table.
  • <tr>-It defines a row in the table.
  • <th>-It defines a header cell in the table.
  • <td>-It defines a cell in the table.
  • <caption>-It defines a caption for the table.
  • <colgroup>-It defines a group of one or more columns in the table for formatting purposes.
  • <col>-It specifies column properties for each column when used with <colgroup> element.
  • <tbody>-It defines a group of body content in the table.
  • <thead>-It groups the header content in the table.
  • <tfooter>-it groups the footer content in the table.

Read More: HTML Tables

17. What are the different types of lists in HTML?

There are three different types of lists in HTML that are as follows:
  1. Unordered List- It is used to specify the items of a list with bullet points.
  2. Ordered List- It is used to specify the items of a list in a sequence with numbers.
  3. Definition List- It is used to arrange the list items in the same way as they are in a dictionary.

18. What are the various levels of heading tags?

The heading tags are divided into 6 levels in HTML. These are H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6 in descending order where H1 is the highest and H6 is the lowest level.

19. What is the difference between HTML and HTML 5?

HTMLHTML 5
Temporary data is stored in cookies.All the offline data is stored in SQL databases and application cache.
JavaScript can not run in the browser.With the help of JS Web worker API in HTML 5 allows JavaScript to run in the browser.
It is supported on all old browsers.It works with all the new browsers such as Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc.
It does not have some attributes like charset, async, and ping.All these attributes are available in HTML 5.

20. What is the purpose of the <img> tag in HTML?

The <img> tag is used to embed images into an HTML document. It requires the 'src' attribute to specify the source of the image we want to embed and does not need a closing tag.
<img src="example.jpg" alt="Example Image">

21. What is the purpose of the <form> element in HTML?

The <form> element is used for creating an HTML form that will need user input. Various HTML form elements can be added in a <form> tag such as fields, buttons, checkboxes, etc. The data filled in these forms is submitted to the server for further processing.
<form action="/submit" method="post">
    <label>Username: <input type="text" name="username"></label><br>
    <label>Password: <input type="password" name="password"></label><br>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form>
Read More: HTML Forms

22. What are HTML entities? Provide an example.

HTML entities are the special characters that are represented by entity names or numerical codes. For example, '&lt;' which is used to represent the less-than sign (<).

23. Explain the difference between the GET and POST methods in HTML forms.

GETPOST
The 'GET' method sends the form data as part of the URL query string.The 'POST' method sends the form data in the HTTP request body.
The data length is limited.It is capable of handling larger data.
It is visible to the user.It is not visible to the user.

24. What is the purpose of the <meta> tag in HTML?

The <meta> tag is used to provide metadata about an HTML document. It can include data like character encoding, viewport settings, author information, etc.

25. How do you create a numbered list in HTML?

We can create a numbered list in HTML using the <ol> element, and add the items in the list with <li>.
<ol>
    <li>First item</li>
    <li>Second item</li>
    <li>Third item</li>
</ol>

HTML Interview Questions and Answers for Intermediate

26. Explain the difference between the <header>, <nav>, <main>, and <footer> elements.

  • <header>-It contains the introductory content or navigation links for a section or the entire page.
  • <nav>-It contains navigation links to other pages or sections within the same page.
  • <main>-It contains the main content of the webpage.
  • <footer>-It contains information about the author, copyright, or other footer-related content.

27. Explain the difference between inline elements and block-level elements in HTML.

Inline ElementsBlock-Level Elements
The inline elements do not start on a new line and flow within the text.The block-level elements start on a new line and occupy the full width.
There are no top and bottom margins for inline elements.Top and bottom margins do exist for block-level elements.
Some examples are- <span>, <a>, <strong>.Some examples are- <div>, <p>, <h1>..<h6>.

Read More: HTML Inline and Block Elements: Explained with Examples

28. What is the purpose of the viewport meta tag?

The viewport meta tag controls the layout and scaling of a webpage on different devices. It makes sure that the webpage is rendered properly so that it appears the same on various devices, especially on mobile devices. The syntax of a meta tag is as shown below:
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">

29. How do you create a dropdown menu in HTML?

Dropdown menus can be created using nested unordered list <ul> elements with the list item of another <ul>. For example:
<ul>
    <li>Home</li>
    <li>About
        <ul>
            <li>History</li>
            <li>Team</li>
        </ul>
    </li>
    <li>Contact</li>
</ul>

30. Explain the purpose of the <meta charset="UTF-8"> tag.

The <meta charset="UTF-8"> tag is used to specify the character encoding for the HTML document. When we use UTF-8, we can ensure that our document supports a wide range of characters and symbols.

Example:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Document</title>
</head>
<body>
    <p>This is a UTF-8 encoded document.</p>
</body>
</html>

31. What are data attributes in HTML?

The data attributes in HTML are custom attributes that store extra information of the HTML elements. They can accessed with JavaScript or CSS and are prefixed with 'data-'.

32. Explain the difference between HTML and XHTML.

HTMLXHTML
It stands for HyperText Markup Language.It stands for eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
HTML is more forgiving of its syntax where shorthand notations are allowed.XHTML follows strict XML rules, where all elements need to be nested and closed properly.
Webpages can be rendered even if the markup is not perfectly formed.Even slight syntax errors can cause parsing errors leading to failure in rendering the document.
The document structure is lenient.It strictly adheres to the XML rules for document structure.
It is compatible with most of the web browsers.Its stricter syntax requirements make it less supported in older browsers.
It is commonly used for general web development.It is used in applications where strict adherence to XML rules is required.

33. How do you embed audio and video in HTML?

  • Audio-To embed audio in HTML, use <audio> element with the 'src' attribute that will specify the audio file and optional controls.
  • <audio controls>
        <source src="audio.mp3" type="audio/mpeg">
    </audio>
    
  • Video-To embed video in HTML, use <video> element with the 'src' attribute that will specify the video file and optional controls.
  • <video controls width="320" height="240">
        <source src="video.mp4" type="video/mp4">
    </video>
    

Read More: Media and Graphics in HTML With Examples ( Full Guide )

34. What is the purpose of the <figure> and <figcaption> elements?

The <figure> element is used to encapsulate media content like images, videos, diagrams, etc. The <figcaption> is used to provide a caption or description for the content within the <figure> element.

35. What is the purpose of the rel attribute in the <a> tag?

The rel attribute specifies the relationship between the current document and the linked document. It basically indicates the type of link.

Example:

<a href="styles.css" rel="stylesheet">Link to stylesheet</a>

36. What is the purpose of the scoped attribute in the <style> tag?

The scoped attribute is used for limiting the scope of the styles that can be defined within the <style> tag. It is generally used with the parent element of the document which is mostly the <template> element.
<template>
    <div>
        <style scoped>
            div {
                color: red;
            }
        </style>
        <div>This text will be red.</div>
    </div>
</template>

37. What is the purpose of the <iframe> element?

The <iframe> element in HTMLis used for embedding another HTML document within the current document. It is commonly used for embedding videos, maps, or external content.

38. How do you create a form with input fields in HTML?

<form> element is used when you want to create a form in HTML and input fields are added using various input elements like <input>, <textarea>, and <select>.

Example:

<form action="/submit" method="post">
    <label for="username">Username:</label>
    <input type="text" id="username" name="username"><br>
    <label for="password">Password:</label>
    <input type="password" id="password" name="password"><br>
    <input type="submit" value="Submit">
</form>

39. What is the purpose of the <canvas> element?

The <canvas> element is used for drawing graphics, animations, other visualizations on a web page with the help of JavaScript.

40. Explain the difference between the <div> and <section> elements.

The <div> element is used as a generic container for grouping and styling content. The <section> element groups content based on a theme within a web page.
<section>
    <h2>Section Title</h2>
    <p>This is the content of the section.</p>
</section>
<div>
    <p>This is content within a div.</p>
</div>

HTML Interview Questions and Answers for Experienced

41. What are web components, and how do they differ from custom HTML elements?

Web components are a set of web platform APIs that allow developers to create reusable and encapsulated custom HTML elements. They consist of four main technologies:
  1. Custom Elements
  2. Shadow DOM
  3. HTML Templates
  4. HTML Imports.

They are different from custom HTML elements as they provide encapsulation and isolation that help in creating complex UI components without much interference from external styles or scripts.

42. Explain the differences between client-side rendering (CSR) and server-side rendering (SSR) in the context of web applications.

Client-Side Rendering (CSR)Server-Side Rendering (SSR)
Rendering occurs in the client's browser using JavaScript frameworks.Rendering occurs on the server before sending HTML to the client.
The initial load time is longer as rendering occurs after HTML is sent to the client.The initial time is shorter as pre-rendered HTML is sent to the client.
It is less SEO-friendly.It is more SEO-friendly.
The performance depends on the browser support for JavaScript and modern APIs.Its performance is consistent across browsers.
The complexity level is higher due to managing client-side state and routing.It is less complex as the server handles rendering and data fetching.

43. What are the new semantic elements introduced in HTML5?

Some of the new semantic elements introduced in HTML 5 are <header>, <nav>, <main>, <section>, <article>, etc. These semantic elements provide a more meaningful structure to the web documents. They make it easier for search engines to understand the structure and meaning of the document better. This, as a result, enhances the overall website structure.

44. How can you ensure accessibility in HTML documents?

  • Use semantic HTML elements to provide a clear document structure and meaningful content hierarchy.
  • Include descriptive text alternatives (using the alt attribute) for images, audio, and video elements.
  • Ensure keyboard navigation and focus management are implemented properly.
  • Use ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) attributes to enhance accessibility for interactive elements and widgets.
  • Test with screen readers and other assistive technologies to identify and address accessibility issues.

45. What are the best practices for optimizing web page performance in terms of HTML?

  • We can combine CSS and JavaScript files to minimize HTTP requests. For that purpose image sprites can be used and optimization of asset delivery.
  • We can use asynchronous loading to prevent blocking page rendering in scripts and stylesheets.
  • Removing unnecessary white spaces, comments, and duplicate attributes helps in optimizing the HTML markup.
  • We can use lazy loading for images and resources that will defer loading until they are needed.
  • There are browser caching and compression techniques that help in reducing file sizes and improving load times.

46. Explain the differences between client-side rendering (CSR) and server-side rendering (SSR) in the context of web applications.

  • Client-side rendering (CSR) is the process in which web pages are rendered entirely on the client's browser using JavaScript frameworks like React, Vue.js, or Angular. The server sends raw HTML and JavaScript bundles to the client, where the rendering and updates will be handled.
  • Server-side rendering (SSR) is the process where web pages are rendered on the server and then these fully rendered HTML are sent to the client's browser. It is often used for improving performance, SEO, and initial page load times, especially for those websites where the content is large.

47. What are web components, and how do they differ from custom HTML elements?

Web components are a set of web platform APIs that allow developers to create reusable and encapsulated custom HTML elements. They consist of four main technologies:
  1. Custom Elements
  2. Shadow DOM
  3. HTML Templates
  4. HTML Imports

Unlike traditional custom HTML elements, web components offer encapsulation and isolation properties, that enable the developers to create complex, reusable UI components without much interference from external styles or scripts.

48. What are HTML imports, and how do they differ from traditional script and link tags?

HTML imports are a way through which we can reuse HTML documents by importing them into other HTML documents. They are a part of the web components cast and allow the developers to reuse the code and enhance modularization. Unlike the traditional script and link tags, they can load such HTML documents as well, where CSS, JavaScript, and other resources are included.
<link rel="import" href="component.html">

49. Explain the difference between <pre> and <code> elements in HTML and when to use each.

With the help of <pre> element, white spaces and line breaks are kept so the preformatted text like code snippets can be displayed easily. On the other hand, the <code> element is used to markup the inline code snippets within a sentence.

Example:

<pre>
  function greet() {
    console.log("Hello, world!");
  }
</pre>
<p>Use the <code>greet()</code> function to display a greeting.</p>

50. What is the purpose of the defer and async attributes in <script> tags?

  • The 'defer' attribute defers the execution of the script until the document has been fully parsed. It is a boolean attribute that is only used with external scripts where the src attribute is present. When this is set, it means that the parsing of the page, and the script is being downloaded parallelly. The script will be executed only after the page has completed parsing.
    <script src="script.js" defer></script>
    
  • The 'async' attribute does not block the HTML parsing and loads the script asynchronously. It is also a boolean attribute in HTML and is only used for external scripts. When there is an async attribute, it means that the script will get executed as soon as it is made available and will not wait for the page to complete parsing.
    <script src="script.js" async></script>
    
Summary
Through this article, we got to know some of the most important questions asked that you can look at before going for an interview. To learn HTML and its basic to advanced concepts, consider enrolling in our HTML certification Course for in-depth knowledge.

FAQs

Q1. How do I Prepare for an html Interview?

To prepare for an HTML interview, start with reviewing basics of HTML like tags, attributes, and document structure. Practice creating forms, tables, and lists. Then move on to advanced topics like semantic HTML, etc.

Q2. How do I showcase html Projects in an Interview?

Showcase your HTML projects by briefly describing your project's purpose and functionality through live examples or screenshots. Highlight unique features of the project but concisely.

Q3. What are Some Resources for html Interview Preparation?

You can prepare for your HTML interview through online courses on various websites and video tutorials on YouTube.

Q4. What are Some Tips for Answering html Interview Questions?

When answering HTML interview questions, be concise and focus on key concepts. Provide short examples for clearance wherever applicable.Stay updated with current trends in web development.

Take our Html skill challenge to evaluate yourself!

In less than 5 minutes, with our skill challenge, you can identify your knowledge gaps and strengths in a given skill.

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