Numbers in JavaScript

Numbers in JavaScript

01 Feb 2024
3 min read
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Unlike object-oriented programming languages (C++, C#, Java), JavaScript doesn't have different types of numbers, like integer, floating-point, long, double, etc. JavaScript has only one type of number that is a floating-point number.

The Number is one of the primitive data types used for using the positive or negative integer, float (decimal number), binary, octal, hexadecimal, and exponential values in JavaScript, and the numbers for the JavaScript are double-precision 64-bit binary formats like a double data type in C# and Java. It follows the international IEEE 754 standard to represent the different sets of number types.

The first character of a number type should be an integer value, and it must not be enclosed in quotation marks because it can not be represented as a string of characters.

You can write JavaScript numbers with or without decimals as given below.

var x = 5; // number without decimal
var y = 5.42; // number with decimal

A JavaScript number is a 64bit (8 bytes) floating-point number which has range of 5e-324 (negative) to 1.7976931348623157e+308 (positive).

JavaScript Numbers Accuracy

JavaScript numbers without decimal are considered accurate up to 15 digits and JavaScript Numbers with decimal are considered accurate up to 16 digits.

//Non-decimal number accuracy test
var x = 999999999999999; //15 digits
var y = 9999999999999999; //16 digits 
var z = 8999999999999999; //16 digit

console.log(x); //999999999999999
console.log(y); //10000000000000000
console.log(z); //8999999999999999

//Decimal number accuracy test
var x = 1.999999999999999; //16 digits
var y = 1.9999999999999999; //17 digits
var z = 11.999999999999999; //17 digits

console.log(x); //1.999999999999999
console.log(y); //2
console.log(z); //11.999999999999998

var x = 16.99999999999999; //16 digits
var y = 161.9999999999999; //16 digits
var z = 161.99999999999999; //17 digits

console.log(x); //16.99999999999999
console.log(y); //161.9999999999999
console.log(z); //162 

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If you want to get an accurate result, take the non-decimal numbers up to 15 digits and decimal numbers up to 16 digits. Since floating-point arithmetic is not always 100% accurate.

JavaScript Special Type Numbers

JavaScript has two special types of numbers: Infinity and NaN.

console.log(typeof(Infinity)) //Number
console.log(typeof(NaN)) //Number
  1. Infinity

    A JavaScript expression can return Infinity or -Infinity value as a result. For example, when you divide a number by 0 (zero), it will return Infinity

    console.log(5/0); //Infinity
    console.log(-5/0); //-Infinity
  2. NaN - Not a Number

    A JavaScript expression can return NaN value as a result. For example, when you divide a string by a number, it will return NaN

    console.log("Hello"/4); //NaN
    console.log("Hello"-4); //NaN

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When you will use + operator within your JavaScript expression and your expression have string values, it will work as a concatenation operator and JavaScript expression will not return NaN.

console.log("Hello"+4); //Hello4

Numbers As Objects

You can also define numbers as objects with the help of a new keyword. Using numbers as an object is not recommended since they slow down execution speed.

var x = 4; //number
var y = new Number(4); //object

console.log(typeof(x)) //number
console.log(typeof(y)) //object
What do you think?

I hope, now you have a better understanding of javascript numbers. I would like to have feedback from my blog readers. Your valuable feedback, question, or comments about this article are always welcome.

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About Author
Amit Kumar (Software Engineer And Author)

Experienced Software Engineer with a demonstrated history of working in the professional training & coaching industry. Skilled in MVC, Angular, Language Integrated Query (LINQ), SQL, C++, and HTML. Strong engineering professional graduated from Sathyabama University.
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