Jump statements in C++: break statement

Jump statements in C++: break statement

21 May 2024
Beginner
2.1K Views
19 min read
Learn via Video Course & by Doing Hands-on Labs

C++ Programming For Beginners

Jump Statements in C++: An Overview

Jump statements are control flow statements that let you change the order in which programs execute. These statements provide flexibility and control over program logic to the programmer. The following article in this C++ tutorial gives a detailed insight into types ofjump statements and explains the break statement in detail. For more insights, you can even check our C++ Certification Program.

Types of Jump Statements C++

There are four types of jump statements in C++ language:
  1. break
  2. continue
  3. goto
  4. return

In the below section, we will discuss the first kind of jump statement i.e. the break statement in C++. The other jump statements will be discussed subsequently in the next sections.

Break Statement in C++

If you remember we already came across the break statement while learning the switch statement. We used to check each case in switch and after finding the correct match used to get out using break.
  • It is one of the most used jump statements.
  • In C++, break is used to prematurely exit from a loop or switch statement, before the block has been fully executed.
  • As soon as a break statement is encountered inside a loop, the loop terminates immediately, and control is transferred to the next statement outside the loop.

Syntax

//loop or switch case 
break;

Example

#include <iostream>
using namespace std; 
int main()
{ 
 for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) 
 { 
 if (i == 5) 
 { 
 break; 
 } 
 cout << i << endl; 
 }
return 0;
}
  • The above C++ code in C++ Compiler iterates from 1 to 10 using a for loop. It determines whether the value of i inside the loop equals 5.
  • It outputs numbers from 1 to 4 (inclusive) as a result
  • When i=5, the break statement is executed, which abruptly ends the loop.

Output

1
2
3
4

Read More - Advanced C++ Interview Interview Questions and Answers

Where to use break statements in C++?

We can use break statements in two ways in C++:
  1. break statement in switch case
  2. break statement in a loop

  1. break statement in switch case in C++

The break statement is used inside a switch statement to terminate the execution of the enclosing switch statement and exit the block of code. When a break statement is encountered inside a switch block, the control flow is transferred to the end of the switch block, and the remaining case statements are skipped.

You have already executed this while learning the switch case in C++.

Syntax

switch (expression) {
 case 1:
 // code to be executed if expression is equal to 1
 break;
 case 2:
 // code to be executed if expression is equal to 2
 break;
 case 3:
 // code to be executed if expression is equal to 3
 break;
 default:
 // code to be executed if expression doesn't match any case
 break;
}

  1. break statement in a loop in C++

We will see here, how to use the break statement in all three types of loops as well as in nested loop.

break statement in a loop in C++

  • Break statement in a for loop

The break statement can be used anywhere inside the for loop's body. When executed, it immediately terminates the loop, and control is transferred to the statement following the loop.

This example that you have already executed above is an example of a break statement in a for loop.

Example of break statement in a for loop
#include <iostream>
using namespace std; 
int main()
{ 
 for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) 
 { 
 if (i == 5) 
 { 
 break; 
 } 
 cout << i << endl; 
 }
return 0;
}
  • The above C++ code in C++ Editor iterates from 1 to 10 using a for loop. It determines whether the value of i inside the loop equals 5.
  • It outputs numbers from 1 to 4 (inclusive) as a result.
  • When i=5, the break statement is executed, which abruptly ends the loop.
Output
1
2
3
4
  • Break statement in a while loop

Example of break statement in a while loop
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
 int i = 0;
 while (true) {
 cout << i << endl;
 i++;
 if (i == 5)
 break;
 }
 cout << "The loop terminates" << std::endl;
 return 0;
}

Here the loop would have become an infinite one had the break statement not been there. When i becomes 5, the control comes out of the otherwise infinite whileloop.

Output
0
1
2
3
4
The loop terminates
Example of break statement in a do...while loop
#include <iostream>

int main() {
 int n = 1, i, choice;
 do {
 i = 1;
 while (i <= 10) {
 std::cout << n << " X " << i << " = " << n * i << std::endl;
 i++;
 }
 std::cout << "Do you want to further print the table of " << n + 1 << ", enter any non-zero value to continue: ";
 std::cin >> choice;
 if (choice == 0) {
 break;
 }
 n++;
 } while (true);
 return 0;
}
Output
1 X 1 = 1
1 X 2 = 2
1 X 3 = 3
1 X 4 = 4
1 X 5 = 5
1 X 6 = 6
1 X 7 = 7
1 X 8 = 8
1 X 9 = 9
1 X 10 = 10
Do you want to further print the table of 2, enter any non-zero value to continue: 1

2 X 1 = 2
2 X 2 = 4
2 X 3 = 6
2 X 4 = 8
2 X 5 = 10
2 X 6 = 12
2 X 7 = 14
2 X 8 = 16
2 X 9 = 18
2 X 10 = 20
Do you want to further print the table of 3, enter any non-zero value to continue: 0
  • break statement in a nested loop

The break statement terminates the innermost loop when it is used in the nested loop.
Example of break statement in a nested loop
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
 int number;
 int sum = 0;

 // first loop
 for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) {
 // second loop
 for (int j = 1; j <= 5; j++) {
 if (i == 2) {
 break;
 }
 cout << "i = " << i << ", j = " << j << endl;
 }
 }
 return 0;
}

In the above code in C++ Online Compiler, when i becomes 2, the inner forloop terminates and does not print the output at i=2. The outer for loop iterates 5 times while the inner one skips the iteration at i=2 and continues the remaining iterations.

Output
i = 1, j = 1
i = 1, j = 2
i = 1, j = 3
i = 1, j = 4
i = 1, j = 5
i = 3, j = 1
i = 3, j = 2
i = 3, j = 3
i = 3, j = 4
i = 3, j = 5
i = 4, j = 1
i = 4, j = 2
i = 4, j = 3
i = 4, j = 4
i = 4, j = 5
i = 5, j = 1
i = 5, j = 2
i = 5, j = 3
i = 5, j = 4
i = 5, j = 5
Summary
In this blog post, we looked at the break statement in C++. We saw its uses in all kinds of scenarios in a comprehensive manner. If you want to go to the next level, consider enrolling in our C++ Training,
Share Article

Live Classes Schedule

Our learn-by-building-project method enables you to build practical/coding experience that sticks. 95% of our learners say they have confidence and remember more when they learn by building real world projects.
Full Stack .Net Certification Training May 26 SAT, SUN
Filling Fast
07:00AM to 09:00AM (IST)
Get Details
ASP.NET Core Certification Training May 26 SAT, SUN
Filling Fast
08:30PM to 10:30PM (IST)
Get Details
Advanced Full-Stack .NET Developer Certification Training May 26 SAT, SUN
Filling Fast
08:30PM to 10:30PM (IST)
Get Details
Azure DevOps Certification Training Course Jun 01 SAT, SUN
Filling Fast
10:00AM to 12:00PM (IST)
Get Details
Data Structures and Algorithms Training Jun 04 TUE, FRI
Filling Fast
08:30PM to 10:00PM (IST)
Get Details
ASP.NET Core Certification Training Jun 14 MON, WED, FRI
Filling Fast
07:00AM to 08:30AM (IST)
Get Details
ASP.NET Core (Project) Jun 22 SAT, SUN
Filling Fast
08:30PM to 10:30PM (IST)
Get Details

Can't find convenient schedule? Let us know

About Author
Shailendra Chauhan (Microsoft MVP, Founder & CEO at Scholarhat by DotNetTricks)

Shailendra Chauhan is the Founder and CEO at ScholarHat by DotNetTricks which is a brand when it comes to e-Learning. He provides training and consultation over an array of technologies like Cloud, .NET, Angular, React, Node, Microservices, Containers and Mobile Apps development. He has been awarded Microsoft MVP 8th time in a row (2016-2023). He has changed many lives with his writings and unique training programs. He has a number of most sought-after books to his name which has helped job aspirants in cracking tough interviews with ease.
Accept cookies & close this